VHD vs VHDX File Format: A Quick but Complete Comparison

Virtualization has become an integral part of modern computing, enabling organizations to optimize resource utilization and streamline management. Virtual hard disk (VHD) and its successor, VHDX, are two prominent file formats used in virtualization environments. In this article, we will delve into the features, advantages, and differences between VHD and VHDX file formats, aiding users in making informed decisions based on their specific requirements.

VHD (Virtual Hard Disk)

Format Overview

VHD is the older of the two formats and has been widely used in virtualization environments for years. It supports a maximum size of 2 TB, limiting its scalability for modern applications with increasing storage demands.


VHD has limitations in terms of performance, especially in scenarios with high I/O requirements. Dynamic and fixed-size disks are the two primary types of VHDs, offering flexibility in storage allocation.

Snapshot and Backup

VHD supports snapshots but with certain limitations, making it less efficient for backup and recovery operations. Backup processes might be time-consuming and resource-intensive when dealing with large VHD files.

VHDX (Hyper-V Virtual Hard Disk)

Format Overview

VHDX is the successor to VHD, introduced with Windows Server 2012 and Windows 8. It addresses the size limitations of VHD by supporting up to 64 TB of storage, making it more suitable for modern virtualization environments.


VHDX offers improved performance, particularly in terms of I/O operations, thanks to its block size optimization. Resilient against power failures and other potential issues, VHDX enhances data integrity and reduces the risk of corruption.

Snapshot and Backup

VHDX supports online resizing and allows for the creation of larger and more efficient snapshots. Backup processes are generally faster and more resource-efficient with VHDX, contributing to better overall system performance.

Feature Comparison

Maximum Disk Size

VHD: Maximum 2 TB.

VHDX: Maximum 64 TB, addressing the scalability limitations of VHD.


VHD: Limited I/O performance compared to VHDX.
VHDX: Optimized for higher I/O operations, contributing to better overall system performance.


VHD: Vulnerable to power failures and other potential issues.
VHDX: Enhanced resilience against power failures and other disruptions, ensuring data integrity.


VHD: Supports snapshots with some limitations.
VHDX: More efficient snapshot capabilities, allowing for larger and faster snapshots.

Compatibility With Other Platforms

You will find that VHD is supported by many VMware and VirtualBox versions, whereas VHDX is typically not.


Choosing between VHD and VHDX depends on specific use cases and requirements. While VHD remains a viable option for certain scenarios, VHDX has emerged as the preferred choice for modern virtualization environments, offering improved scalability, performance, and resilience. When planning or upgrading a virtualization infrastructure, understanding the differences between these two file formats is crucial for making informed decisions that align with the organization’s goals and future growth.

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